Published as a Service to Education. Special acknowledgment is herewith made to. Watson N. Trustees of the Foundation:. Donald N. John T.
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Published as a Service to Education. Special acknowledgment is herewith made to. Watson N. Trustees of the Foundation:. Donald N. John T. Frieg, Trustee, Cleveland, Ohio. Leslie L. Sabo, Cleveland, Ohio. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Printed in U. Permission to reproduce any material contained herein will be granted upon request, provided proper credit is given to The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, P. Box , Cleveland, Ohio, Copyright by The James F.
Arc Welding Foundation. Many variables beyond the control of The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation affect the results obtained in applying this type of information. These variables include, but are not limited to welding proce- dure, plate chemistry and temperature, weldment design, fabrication methods and service requirements. The first welded buildings were erected in the '20s-the greatest application being in low-level buildings of many types.
The American Welding Society first published specifications for welded bridges in But early progress came slowly. Arc Welding. Through its award programs and educational activities, the Foundation provided an exchange of experience and gave impetus to the growing application of welding.
Thus, within the last decade and particularly. This material represents an interpretation. The author has coordinated this with a continuing study of current welding research conducted both in the United States and Europe, and against a background of participation on various code-writing committees. Much of the direct instructional information that resulted has been pretested in over 70 structural seminars attended by over engineers.
The author will appreciate having called to his attention any errors that have escaped his attention and invites correspondence on subjects about which the reader may have questions. Neither the author nor the publisher, however, can assume responsibility for the results of designers using values and formulas contained in the manual since so many variables affect every design. Now, the Foundation. The production. The James.
Lincoln Arc Welding. June The author and the publisher gratefully acknowledge the organi- zations and individuals who have contributed photographs or other illustrative material:.
Allison Structural Steel Co. American Bridge Division, U. Nathan N. Kaiser Steel Corp. Kansas City Structural Steel Co.
Felix M. John F. Beasley Construction Co. Bethlehem Fabricating Co. Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Mahon Company. Mallog Co.
Cappuccilli, Architect. Dominion Structural Steel Co. Dreier Structural Steel Co. David R. Haven-Busch Co. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Pacific Iron and Steel Corporation. Phillips-Carter-Osborn, Inc. Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. Platt Company. Van Rensselaer P. In certain subject areas, the author has made adaptations of work done by earlier investigators, to wit:.
Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky Krieger. Timoshenko and James Gere. The publisher regrets any omissions from this list, and would appreciate being advised about them so that the records can be corrected.
Introduction to Welded Construction. Welding has been an import ant fac tor in our economy. The progress made in we lding equipment an d elec- trodes, the advancing art and science of designing for welding, and the growth in trust and acc eptance of wel ding have combined to make welding a powerful implement for an expanding construction industry.
More an d more buildings and bridges are being b uilt according to the precepts of goo d weld ed d esign. The economies inherent in weld ing are helping to offset evolutionary increases in the p rices of materials and cost of labor. In ad dition, th e shortened production cycles, mad e poss ible by welding, have he lped effect a quickening in the pace of new construction.
W eld ed construction has p aid off ha ndsomely for ma ny architects, structural engineers, con tractors, and th eir client-customers. It will b ecome incr easingly im- portant as more people ac quire a greater d epth of knowled ge an d expe rien ce with it. Each is a network of Greek-type crosses. The structure is alf welded-shop and field. Many of the commercial E60xx electrodes also meet E7 0xx specifications.
There are nume rous reasons why we ld metal has higher strength than the corresponding plate. T he two most important are:. T he core wire used in the electrode is of pre- mium steel, held to closer specifications than the plate. There is complete shielding of the molten metal during welding. This, plus the scavenging and deoxidiz- ing agents and other ingredients in the electrode coat- ing, produces a uniformity of crystal structure and physical properties on a par with electric furnace steel.
Because of these, properly deposited welds have a tremendous reserve of strength or factor of safety, far beyond what industry specifications usually recog- nize. But even without a reduced safety fac tor, there is a considerable cost advantage. Samples were pulled in tension under a static load; in all cases failure occurred in the plate and not in the weld.
Tests have shown that a weld can contain a large amount of porosity without materially changing the tensile or impact strength and ductility of the weld. These charts consider size, distribution, and alignment of voids, versus plate thickness. This is defined as "gas pockets and any similar generally globular type voids.
For porosity above JiG" in void size, a table shows minimum clearance between voids and maximum size of void for any given plate thickness. The use of only one flange plate with a reasonable number of butt welded splices, at points where the plate thickness can be reduced, is usually adequate and also gives improved fatigue resistance. The selection of a connecting system should be made at the design level; for some types of structures, may even influence the architectural concept itself.
A welded office building in Dallas , Texas, is an. Futhermore, approximately six months in construction tim e will be saved as a result of using a weld ed steel frame. Comparative experience has proved that had this. Expanded open-web b eams and girders-fabri- cated from standard rolled b eams-are providing gr eat savings in both bridge and building design. An open- web girder designed to have the required moment. This results in significant savings in material costs-for columns, facia , stairs, etc.
The ease with which tapered beams and girders can be fabricated from standard rolled beams p ermits an endless variety of savings in building design. The spandrel beam is shop welded to th e column for lowest cost and shipped to th e site.
Special built-up columns can be used to ob- tain op en, column-free interiors, to mount facia eco- nomically, to provide the steel-and-glass look which domin ates today's downtown and industrial park archi- tecture. Today's structure goes up quickly due to welding.
Design of Welded Structures - Omer W. Blodgett.pdf
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Blodgett's Welding Design Seminars
For over 60 years, Lincoln Electric has hosted design seminars that have provided the attendees with ideas of how to make welded products more dependable, lower in cost, and welded in a safe manner. Thousands of engineers have attended these seminars, made popular by Dr. Omer W. Blodgett after whom the seminars are named. Two application-focused design seminars are offered.
Design Welded Structures by Omer Blodgett
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