Baudhayana- Bodhayana. Baudhayana is a very celebrated name in the long line of scholars of very ancient India. There have been many eminent persons in various fields of study going by the name of Baudhayana. It is also said that Bodhayana is the Southern form of Baudhayana. He is praised as a hero of high knowledge and wide fame; and, one who awakens others.
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The fact that Veda Dharma Sastra Paripalana Sabha has published this book with Tamil translation under instructions and with blessings of Sri Acharyapada of Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham with the aim that all astikas believers should improve spiritually by knowing the contents of this book is very important in the service of propagation of Dharma.
This can fetch a great benefit to the Astika world. It is but natural in the present context that there is interest in knowing the greatness of our esteemed Acharya Sri Aapasthamba Muni and his works conveying the essence of Vedas and understanding the principles of dharma therein, which are conducive to good of the world.
Unfortunately, owing to the spread of western culture in respect of language, food, dress etc. Many of us may not be aware of even the names of the authoritative texts of our Vedic religion.
The Rishi Aapasthamba teaches us in his Dharma Sutram the practices to be followed by men right from birth till end and duties to be performed in everyday life. They also contain the Raja dharmas to be practised by kshatriya during his reign for protecting his subjects. The Dharma Sutram prescribes dharmas for varnas and asramas including prayaschitta expiation ritual , division of property among heirs etc.
Hence Dharma Sutram is like the law of Vedic religion. Benefit of Dharma Sutram Dharma sutram teaches the discipline to be followed by man in his daily life and as a member of the society. We can see that besides teaching of dharmas pertaining to varnas and asramas, various guidelines relating to how man should live in social, economic and political spheres are described here. The very life in the world has Dharma as its basis.
Sruti states that Dharma is the foundation for all the worlds and that if that foundation quakes, the superstructures will also shake and fall off. It is only our Vedic Hindu religion that has organised life in the world on the basis of Dharma in this manner and protected it. This special feature is not found in other religions. Dharma sutras are largely responsible for this.
That Srimad Acharya, who incarnated as spark of Iswara, became a world teacher, overthrew non-Vedic religions and re-established the Vedic religion, wrote a forceful and clear commentary on a part of Aapasthamba Sutram like he did for Brahmasutram, Upanishads etc. The commentary of Sri Bhagavatpada describes how the supreme state of Atmagnana and removal of defects like desire, anger, greed, delusion and pleasure, which afflict the beings are in fact part of Dharma.
Vedas and Rishis Aapasthamba quotes as authority the three Vedas in general as well as in specific cases. He has also referred to Atharvana Veda. Even where he has difference of opinion, he quotes them. Names like Gautama, Bodhayana, Manu, Parasara et al do not find mention. Puranas, specially Bhavishya Purana, have been referred to.
Was Aapasthamba disciple of Bodhayana? Yagneswara, the commentator of Bodhayana sutra, says that Aapasthamba was the disciple of Bodhayana. But this is not borne out in the tradition of followers of his sutram. Aapasthamba does not seem to have mentioned the name of Bodhayana anywhere in his sutram.
As regards the so-called opposing points of view between the sutras of Bodhayana and Aapasthamba pointed out by white analysts, we will enquire at some other time. Is it seen or unseen fruit? There is now an important question: If dharmas prescribed in Dharmasutras are practised by man, is the fruit enjoyed here in this world, or is it welfare in the next world? If mundane benefit is absent, we have to fault our Hindu religion as one of blind faith, with no visible use in practice.
If mundane benefit alone is there, this religion will also become a worldly religion in a way. The way shown by Aapasthamba on this difficult question is acceptable to all.
The Sutrakara says that it is a religion which has a mix of both. In certain sutras, he criticises mundane benefit in exclusion and says that practices aimed at only mundane welfare will become fruitless at the end, resulting in blemishes leading to naraka etc. Aapasthamba, who thus condemns practising dharma only for mundane benefit, mentions in many places mundane advantages like long life, health, progeny, wealth, strength etc. He describes those also as dharma. He says that it is dharma to live in a village where firewood, water etc.
By living in a village where firewood, water etc. By swimming in river, there could be danger. By talking much with women, good character may be lost. Such worldly benefits are there for such rules. Where seen benefits are there, it is by sheer nature that man is inclined towards them.
There is no need in such cases for Sastra or interest in dharma. When hunger sets in, one eats automatically; here a rule compelling one to eat is unnecessary. If one wants comfortable life, he lives in a good village.
Where is the need for Sastraic rule for this? The result will then be that as seen benefit is perceived for all common dharmas like non-violence, truth, non-stealing etc. Note: Mimamsa, meaning enquiry or investigation, is one of the six chief Darrsanas or systems of Indian philosophy. Mimamsaka is the investigator. It is clear from practice that if paddy is to be turned into rice, it has to be pounded in a mortar. Mimamsakas aver that this rule is for teaching that paddy should be pounded only in a mortar and it should not be turned into rice by peeling off the skin with hand nails.
But it appears that Aapasthamba did not accept this explanation. He feels that adherence to dharma will decline if seen benefit is accepted. His sutras bear this out. His view is that all rules are aimed at unseen benefit. However though seen benefit is mentioned in many of the rules, it helps us traditionally by acting in consonance with unseen benefit, though not directly perceptible. What is the purport of the Sutrakara who says that unseen fruit exists even for rules of dharma like washing hands and feet?
Does he think there is no seen benefit? Or does he think that seen benefit is secondary? Nobody can say that there is no seen benefit in the rules of dharma, which show the way to live worldly life well. The Sutrakara also does not refute this. He only criticises attaching prime importance to worldly benefits and practising dharmas for the sake of those benefits. He makes this clear in one of his Sutras. Hence Aapasthamba himself explains through examples that worldly benefits will accrue on their own when dharma is practised as per Sastraic rules and that they are acceptable.
He says in a Sutra that when mango tree is grown for the sake of mango fruit, besides that main benefit, one gets automatically additional benefits like shade, good smell etc. Similarly by practice of dharma, in addition to getting the prime aim of unseen fruit, one gets automatically worldly benefit also. Hence he has concluded in his Dharmasutram that unseen fruit is the prime aim of practice of dharmas and that seen benefit is only secondary. This indeed is the purpose of Vedic religion.
As his Dharmasutram contains many wonderful truths throughout, we will take up a few examples. Teachings to Students Aapasthamba teaches in detail the rules to be observed by students during the period of study of Vedas etc. Modern educationists should certainly pay heed to many important teachings meant to safeguard the discipline of the student including his instructions on the respect to be shown by the student to the teacher, the way he should speak to him, the way he should sit in front of him, rules to be observed till the end of brahmacharya period, time of study, time when study of Vedas is not permitted Anadhyayana kalam etc.
It is certain that considering the way our Rishis have laid down rules of discipline for students by way of religion and dharma, it cannot be found in any other religious or official scheme. He prohibits students from witnessing dances, dramas etc. In these days when cinema and dances have increased and spoiled the man, it is not necessary to explain the necessity of this rule.
It is good that our ancestors stopped this under the authority of religion and dharma. Similarly Aapasthamba also prohibits students from visiting non-religious assemblies and places of gambling etc. Another important rule is to be noted. The affairs referred to here are social, economic, political, professional and trade related to public. It is of course necessary to know these matters to conduct worldly life. It is also an art.
It is noteworthy that the Sutrakara has prescribed many duties for the teacher also, like he has for the student. There are many more such teachings. Earning wealth and enjoying pleasures The enemies of Hinduism indulge in false propaganda that Hinduism teaches non-attachment and thus spoils worldly life.
This notion Aapasthamba destroys. He permits earning wealth in dharmic way; he also says that worldly pleasures should be enjoyed without contravening dharma. He adds that by dharmas, just as man conquers the next world and enjoys pleasures there, he also conquers this world and enjoys pleasures here. Further in the section dealing with means of livelihood, he lays down activities like trade etc. It is important in his Dharmasutram that he permits earning wealth and that trade activities of buying and selling, which can be performed by brahmana, with restrictions on the materials to be sold are described in detail, along with rules for living in times of emergency.
It can be seen from this Dharmasutram that Hinduism does not just emphasise restrictions of dharma and well being in the next world, leaving man to suffer for necessities of life here in this world. Honouring Guest and charity of food The broad aims and concern for the welfare of all creatures of Vedic Hindu religion can be seen from this Dharmasutram. It is noteworthy that Vaisvadevam, hospitality to guest, including those who arrive unexpectedly and serving food to all creatures are all prescribed as dharma in the course of daily karma.
Sastra prescribes that the rich man should share his extra wealth with poor people by way of gift of food, clothing etc. The rules of Dharmasutram state that every day, as soon as food is ready, Vaisvadeva karma should be done and food served to guests, including unexpected arrivals, sick, lower castes like chandalas, animals like dogs, tiny creatures like worms, ants etc.
This can be characterised as Dharmic socialism. The rule of Vedic religion is that the householder should set apart one-fifth of his wealth for spending on relatives, friends, servants and guests including those who arrive unannounced. Following this, Aapasthamba has spelt out many lofty and broad -based aims in his Vaisvadeva Prakaranam.
Householder should, after completing Deva Pooja and Vaisvadevam, come out and see whether any guest has arrived, before himself sitting for lunch. He should wait for some time.
Kashikar, in part in his "Srautakosa", and as a whole later on. Baudhayana , the traditional author of the Sutra, originally belonged to the Kanva school of the White Yajurveda. Caland has adduced materials that indicate Baudhayana's shift from this tradition to that of the Taittiriya school. The text is important as it is one of the earliest Srautasutras, next to that of the Vadhula sub-school of the Taittiriyas, which was situated a little further west than the Baudhayanas. They also have some unusual similarities in quoting Mantras.
Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra
Do the Sri Vaishnavites following Bhodhayana sutra follow the above with replacing Parameswara Preethyartham as Narayana Preethyartham or are there further changes? Can you kindly clarify? I think that replacing the Parameshwara preethyartham , you can proceed. Even there I see that then kalai and vada Kalai follow slightly different sankalpams. PLease read my compilation of Amavasya tharpana manthras for iyengars for information about this, Ramachander. Sir, Please let me know whether we can give tarpanam to a friend who has passed away in the wrong way that is suicide. By this Mahalaya paksham it would be completing 4 months.