Casos de Estudio de Distribuciones de Probabilidad para Turismo. Se afronta el estudio de distribuciones de probabilidad, tanto de variables aleatorias discretas como continuas. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available We review factors influencing Liolaemus distributions in the central Chilean Andes and suggest areas of future research. Our previous studies reveal that lizard parasites ectoparasitic mites and ticks, and the endoparasite Plasmodium do not set Liolaemus altitudinal limits.

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Casos de Estudio de Distribuciones de Probabilidad para Turismo. Se afronta el estudio de distribuciones de probabilidad, tanto de variables aleatorias discretas como continuas. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available We review factors influencing Liolaemus distributions in the central Chilean Andes and suggest areas of future research. Our previous studies reveal that lizard parasites ectoparasitic mites and ticks, and the endoparasite Plasmodium do not set Liolaemus altitudinal limits.

Thermal tolerances do not appear to limit altitudinal distributions, although cold ambient temperatures dictate that only live-bearing species can occur above 2, m elevation. Three Liolaemus species specialize on elevationally restricted microhabitats. Liolaemus tenuis is found exclusively in or at the base of trees, which are typically below 1, m. Liolaemus leopardinus specializes on large rocky outcrops found at high altitudes. Liolaemus monticola uses smaller rocks: oviparity set its upper distributional limit on two transects, but on one transect this lizard and its rocky habitat virtually disappeared above 1, m.

Interspecific competition among Liolaemus appeared unrelated to elevational distribution. We found no instances of parapatric distributions among pairs of Liolaemus species having similar niche requirements.

Other researchers have found that predation does not correlate with elevation: its role in determining lizard species distributions depends on both predator and prey identities. Propiedades de las distribuciones beta y Dirichlet de matrices complejas. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions.

However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates Animal Fascioliasis: Perspectives from high altitudinal regions.

The parasitic flukes of the genus Fasciola Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea cause fascioliasis or liver-rot disease in ruminant livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Classically, two species of Fasciola- F. Our survey studies on ovid and bovid animals including yak and mithun from high altitudinal mountainous regions in Northeast India revealed the occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and also Fasciola sp.

Two morphotypes- F. All rights reserved. Food plant species were identified by visual observation and quantified by a standard quadrat method. The highest relative abundance was observed at man-made walls and surroundings in the alpine zone and on broken slopes in the sub-alpine one, whereas alpine meadows showed the lowest abundance.

A total of 26 plant species were found to be consumed by pikas. The proportion of forage plants was the highest Rocky areas probably offer both nest-sites and temporary refuges to escape from predators. Riassunto Abbondanza relativa del pica di Royle Ochotona roylei lungo un gradiente altitudinale in Uttarakhand, Himalaya occidentale. Sono stati identificate tre fasce altitudinali e 10 habitat complessivi. Strong altitudinal partitioning in the distributions of ectomycorrhizal fungi along a short m elevation gradient.

However, few studies have considered altitudinal relationships of ECM fungi associated with a single host to identify the role of abiotic drivers. To address this, ECM fungal communities associated with one host were assessed along five altitudinal transects in Scotland.

The present article, by considering the distributional summations of Euler-Maclaurin and a suitable choice of the distribution, results in representations for the Fourier coeffi Full Text Available The limits of alpine vegetation belts have been established mainly based on physiognomic criteria.

However, a more objective approach for fixing limits of vegetation belts are methods based on species composition and relative abundance of each species.

While these methods are more time consuming, they are more detailed and permit the detection of physical factors affecting the limits of vegetation belts. There was a complete agreement between the different methods in delimiting the subalpine belt. However, in the lower alpine belt the cushion's belt floristic methods subdivided it in sub-belts.

In the floristic methods, elevations that formed the higher alpine belt segregated in separate ways because they have no species in common. Physiognomic descriptions lose relevant information about species distribution, especially at higher elevations. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones.

Robbins, C. Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. El tama? El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a? Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: I se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; 2 se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; 3 se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, 4 se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; 5 se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; 6 son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; 7 los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones.

The objective of the EDS simulator is to integrate engineering distribution functions power flow, short circuit, optimal reconfiguration and reliability, among others and an expert system Case-based Reasoning to aid the process of information analysis, decision-making and the capacity-building of the CFE's Regional and Zonal Distribution Control Centers.

The EDS simulator has been installed, updated and is operational in the Tampico Zone and the Gulf Division Distribution Center, as an established product that continually evolves along with the actual operating dynamics.

El objetivo del simulador del SED es integrar funciones de ingenieria de distribucion flujo de potencia, corto circuito, reconfiguracion optima, confiabilidad, entre otras y un sistema experto Razonamiento Basado en Casos para apoyar el proceso de analisis de informacion, la toma de decisiones y la capacitacion en los Centros de Control de Distribucion Zonales y Regionales de CFE. El Simulador del SED se encuentra instalado, actualizado y en operacion en la Zona Tampico y en la Division de Distribucion Golfo Centro como un producto consolidado y en constante evolucion a la par de la dinamica operativa real.

Perfil altitudinal de la temperatura media del aire en Colombia. Full Text Available Se establecen ecuaciones que relacionan la temperatura media anual del aire en. Colombia con la altitud. Equations that establish relations between annual average temperature and altitude are defined for Colombia. These equations allow to estimate temperature values at any place, just by knowing altitude and regional location data.

It is also possible to determine altitudinal gradients, which in turn allows to know the temperature of a given place, from the data for a base.

The defined equations show that temperature is not a unique function of altitudinal changes, but it also depends on specific physical conditions for each region or subregion. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude.

La jurisprudencia sobre las excepciones relativas a la seguridad en el acuerdo gatt. Distribution transformer with automatic voltage adjustment - performance; Transformador de distribucion con ajuste automatico de tension - desempeno.

Hernandez Ruiz, Gustavo A. E-mail: gustavo1. E-mail: jramirez gdl. In the electric power distribution systems, the power quality is strongly linked with the service stability voltage. In the radial kind systems, it is virtually impossible to achieve a flat voltage along the lines, so it is desirable to count with transformers that can adjust automatically the turns ratio.

En sistemas de tipo radial, es virtualmente imposible mantener uniforme la tension a lo largo de las lineas, por lo que se hace deseable contar con transformadores que puedan ajustar automaticamente la relacion de transformacion. Latitudinal and altitudinal controls of Titan's dune field morphometry.

Le Gall, A. Herein, we discuss correlations in dune morphometry with altitude and latitude. These correlations, which have important implications in terms of geological processes and climate on Titan, are investigated through the microwave electromagnetic signatures of dune fields using Cassini radar and radiometry observations. The backscatter and emissivity from Titan's dune terrains are primarily controlled by the amount of interdune area within the radar footprint and are also expected to vary with the degree of the interdunal sand cover.

In elevated dune terrains, we show a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio and possibly a thinner sand cover in the interdune areas. A similar correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north.

The altitudinal trend among Titan's sand seas is consistent with the idea that sediment source zones most probably occur in lowlands, which would reduce the sand supply toward elevated regions. The latitudinal preference could result from a gradual increase in dampness with latitude due to the asymmetric seasonal forcing associated with Titan's current orbital configuration unless it is indicative of a latitudinal preference in the sand source distribution or wind transport capacity.

Do American dippers obtain a survival benefit from altitudinal migration? Full Text Available Studies of partial migrants provide an opportunity to assess the cost and benefits of migration. Previous work has demonstrated that sedentary American dippers residents have higher annual productivity than altitudinal migrants that move to higher elevations to breed. Here we use a ten-year 30 period mark-recapture dataset to evaluate whether migrants offset their lower productivity with higher survival during the migration-breeding period when they occupy different habitat, or early and late-winter periods when they coexist with residents.

Mark-recapture models provide no evidence that apparent monthly survival of migrants is higher than that of residents at any time of the year. The best-supported model suggests that monthly survival is higher in the migration-breeding period than winter periods. Another well-supported model suggested that residency conferred a survival benefit, and annual apparent survival calculated from model weighted monthly apparent survival estimates using the Delta method of residents 0.

Winter survival of American dippers was influenced by environmental conditions; monthly apparent survival increased as maximum daily flow rates increased and declined as winter temperatures became colder. However, we found no evidence that environmental conditions altered differences in winter survival of residents and migrants.

Since migratory American dippers have lower productivity and slightly lower survival than residents our data suggests that partial migration is likely an outcome of competition for limited nest sites at low elevations, with less competitive individuals being forced to migrate to higher elevations in order to breed. Studies of partial migrants provide an opportunity to assess the cost and benefits of migration.

Bilateral occipital lobe infarction with altitudinal field loss following radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation. Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral stroke following radiofrequency catheter ablation is an unusual complication and may result in bilateral altitudinal visual field defects. Bilateral altitudinal visual field defects usually result from prechiasmal pathology causing damage to both retinas or optic nerves and rarely from bilateral symmetric damage to the post chiasmal visual pathways.

Case presentation A year-old man complained of visual disturbance on wakening following radiofrequency catheter ablation. The patient had a CHADS score of 1 pre-operatively and no complications were noted intra-operatively. Examination revealed a bilateral superior altitudinal defect and MRI of the brain showed multifocal areas of infarction predominantly involving the occipital lobes which correlated to with the visual deficits.

Conclusion While the risk of thromboembolism and perioperative stroke during radiofrequency catheter ablation is small, it is not insignificant. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources field data, biological collections and bibliography.


The Bayanihan Development Project

This discipline has experienced an increasing development in the last decades, both in a methodological and emprirical level. In this article, an actualized overview of the problem of demand modeling from a disaggregate perspective is presented, emphasizing the case of the transport, in wich the mayor part of the applications has been developed. Microeconomical basis, the most important aspects related to modeling and the sources of information of this modeles are analyzed. In relation with this sources, a special mention about the modeling with declared preferences and mixed data is made. Generalmente, no se demanda viajar per se, sino que se hace con el objetivo de realizar una actividad localizada en el espacio y en el tiempo. Sin embargo, cuentan con el inconveniente de que no siempre los individuos hacen lo que declaran que van a hacer.







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