Jump to navigation. It has been widely used in treatment outcome studies for disruptive disorders. It is not a diagnostic tool. Eyberg, S. The ECBI was originally standardized on parents of preadolescent children in It was standardized on parents of adolescents in
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The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation, including analysis on the one-dimensional structure of the ECBI scales using item response theory. The results also indicated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability community sample , and good convergent and divergent validity. Findings support the use of the ECBI as a reliable measure for child disruptive behavior problems in a Dutch population. Suggestions for the optimal use of the both ECBI scales for research and screening purposes are made.
Persistently high levels of aggressive, oppositional, and impulsive behavior in young children are serious risk factors for negative developmental outcomes in adolescence and adulthood Broidy et al. If left untreated, conduct-disordered behavior in young children can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of functioning including difficulties in family, peer, school, and community interactions Broidy et al.
Long-term costs for education, mental health services, justice and social services are estimated at ten times higher for children with disruptive behavior disorders compared to children with no problems Lee et al. Early interventions are necessary to reduce the risk of serious disruptive behavior in adolescence and adulthood Aos et al. Psychosocial interventions are considered the most effective treatment strategy for young children and their parents Comer et al.
Parent rating scales are the most efficient and commonly used method for screening behavior problems in young children Funderburk et al. The ECBI Eyberg and Pincus is widely used for early screening of disruptive child behavior within both clinical and research settings.
The ECBI is a parent rating scale, designed to measure the level of disruptive behavior in children aged between 2 and The ECBI has several strengths. Firstly, the ECBI has been shown to be sensitive in measuring the effect of treatment on disruptive behavior problems Eisenstadt et al.
Secondly, the ECBI is short 36 items and easy to complete. It contains short and concisely described child behaviors with little room for interpretation, which makes it easy to understand. Therefore, the ECBI is particularly suited for screening in lower educated families. For each item, parents are asked how often their child displays this behavior IS and whether or not they find this behavior problematic PS.
The reliability and validity of the ECBI is supported in over 20 studies across cultures and countries e. Funderburk et al. Normative data from community samples are available Colvin et al. In line with the expectations, correlations with scales measuring internalizing behavior problems were lower than correlations with scales measuring externalizing behavior problems Axberg et al.
With regards to the discriminative validity of the ECBI, in the clinically referred US sample as described by Weis and colleagues , the Intensity Scale distinguished between groups of children with no significant externalizing problems, children with inattentive and oppositional behavior symptoms, and children with more serious behavioral problems. Although the ECBI is widely used, and the evidence for validity across countries is strong, no evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the ECBI is available in the Netherlands and most other European countries.
Adequate use of the ECBI for screening and treatment evaluation purposes requires knowledge regarding its psychometric properties in a Dutch community and clinical population.
The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of the ECBI scales in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, reproducibility, convergent, divergent, and discriminative validity. We investigated these psychometric properties in two samples: a community sample and a clinical sample.
Considering the international evidence suggesting that the Intensity and Problem Scales of the ECBI have good psychometric properties, we hypothesized that we would find similar results.
The ECBI is a screening tool with established cut-offs Eyberg and Pincus and is primarily designed to assess a single dimension of disruptive behavior problems Colvin et al. These findings suggest that the ECBI can be used to differentiate between behavior disorders within the externalizing behavior spectrum Weis et al. This three-factor structure was replicated in several studies including community and clinical samples, and demonstrated both predictive and discriminant validity Axberg et al.
Other researchers, however, failed to replicate these results. Gross et al. More recently, in a community sample, including low income families from different cultural backgrounds and of different ethnicities Butler failed to replicate the results for a three-factor structure of the ECBI and suggested that these factors are not used for screening and treatment outcome research.
Previous studies exploring the factor structure of the ECBI used factor analysis. However, factor analysis is correlation-based and strongly dependent on the study sample used. Results may therefore vary from sample to sample. Currently, the three-factor structure of the ECBI is not used in treatment outcome research, and there is still a preference for using the ECBI as a one-dimensional scale for measuring child disruptive behavior Comer et al.
Additional research on a larger sample of children is however needed to shed light on the preferred unidimensional use of the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scales. The use of a larger sample would provide the opportunity to apply modern methods of scale validation, such as Rasch analysis or Item response theory IRT analysis, which produce results that are less sample-dependent. In summary, the other goal of the study was to test the one-dimensional structure of the ECBI scales using modern test analysis techniques to provide more information on the dimensional structure of the ECBI.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. To assess behavior problems in a community sample, parents were recruited at child day care centers, primary schools and through social networks in several regions of the Netherlands.
Teachers or day care workers provided parents with the ECBI and an additional demographic questionnaire was used to obtain background information about the informants and the children in the study. This low response rate could be a consequence of different levels of motivation from teachers. The remaining questionnaires were retrieved following digital distribution, as some schools sent parents an e-mail including a link to complete the questionnaires online.
For this sample, however, no response rate was available, because the total number of parents receiving this e-mail was unknown. To motivate the parents to participate for a second time, a gift card was provided as a raffle prize. The response rate for this 6-month follow-up was In total, parents The sample included boys and girls. Most of the children Parental education was categorized as low no education or primary education , middle secondary education or high higher academic education Statistics Netherlands Families who perceived problems in parenting were asked to participate in the treatment evaluation study.
Due to the fact that participation in this group was voluntary, no refusal rates are available. A medical ethics committee approved these studies. All parents who participated provided informed consent and were contacted to complete a demographic questionnaire, the ECBI, and the SDQ in one sitting prior to beginning treatment. Most parents received and returned the questionnaires by post, but some parents completed the questionnaires during a home visit by the researcher.
The overall sample consisted of parents and children boys and 75 girls aged between 2. The dates of birth of four children were unknown. For these children we were therefore not able to calculate their exact age.
Additionally, for 79 children The sample consisted of participants from a range of ethnic backgrounds, In the clinical sample, participant level data from the two treatment evaluation studies were pooled and two slightly different versions of the Dutch ECBI translations were used i. Considering that differences were minor and preliminary analyses revealed no impact, we can assume that there were no effects of combining these two versions for the current study.
The SDQ consists of five subscales all containing the sum of five items. This allowed for a comparison of the ECBI items, which were included in both scales. For some families no diagnostic information was collected due to differences in clinical practice or practical issues, for example some families were not reached for the diagnostic interview before the start of treatment. Children were assessed for the presence of attention or hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant behavior and conduct problem behavior based on the diagnostic criteria of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association Trained clinicians and psychiatrists administered these interviews and observations.
All analyses were performed in SPSS version 19 or In total, 7 children were excluded from the community sample and 28 children were excluded form the clinical sample. Chi-square tests revealed no differences in demographic characteristics between participants who had incomplete questionnaires and those with less than 4 missing items or no missing items.
Also, as described in the manual guidelines, missing values were replaced with 1 Never for the Intensity Scale and 0 No for the Problem Scale Axberg et al. In the community sample, 25 families had one or two missing items which were replaced, and in the clinical sample 24 families had one, two or three missing items which were replaced.
Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs also revealed no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the parents and children who had complete questionnaires and those who did not. Statistical analyses were performed is three stages. First, the unidimensional structure of the ECBI scales was tested in order to allow for exploration of the other psychometric properties of the ECBI in the appropriate scales.
An exploratory factor analysis EFA was conducted as a preliminary analysis in order to examine the dimensional structure of the ECBI scales. Factors were extracted via principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Oblique rotation was chosen, because it was expected that the factors measuring externalizing behavior would be correlated Nolan et al. The EFA was run without specifying the number of factors.
Factor loadings, scree plots and eigenvalues using the Kaiser-Guttman rule Fabrigar et al. Subsequently, item response theory methods, a specific extension of the Rasch measurement model Verhelst and Glas ; Verhelst et al. Therefore, the community and clinical sample were combined for these analyses. The item scores on the community sample also showed too limited variation to perform a meaningful IRT analysis with this sample alone.
Contrary to the basic Rasch model that assumes equal discriminative capacities for each test item, the extension of this model, the one-parameter logistic model OPLM , allows individual items to vary by assigning item weights according to their capacity to discriminate between individuals on their level of problem behavior. Weights may vary between 1 low discriminative capacity of an item to 5 very high discriminative capacity of an item.
Like the basic Rasch model, OPLM requires the answer categories of the scales to have a dichotomous structure. Dichotomization was appropriate for this data, because a rating scale analysis showed disordered rating scale categories. For example, higher item categories showed lower item threshold difficulties than lower adjacent categories for many items.
Hence, ECBI Intensity Scale items were first dichotomized into two categories indicating a low and high frequency of a specific problem behavior.
In order to have an adequate distribution between categories and based on the distribution of the data, it was chosen to classify an item score of 1, 2, and 3 as 0 low and an item score of 4, 5, 6, and 7 as 1 high. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation methods were used to estimate the item and person parameters for the ECBI scales.
Item fit to the OPLM model after testing fit to the basic Rasch model was tested using item-oriented fit statistics S tests that examine observed and expected numbers with a given item score conditional on the problem behavior level as measured with the ECBI. After testing for the one-dimensional structure, additional psychometric properties were examined in both the community and clinical samples. These analyses included correlations, and the calculation of the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scale means for the total samples and subgroups.
The reproducibility of the ECBI items score from the test-retest reliability assessment was evaluated using quadratic weighted kappa coefficients for the ordinal structure of the ECBI Intensity Scale and unweighted kappa coefficients for the dichotomous structure of the ECBI Problem Scale. Additionally, the reproducibility of the ECBI sum scores total Intensity Scale and Problem Scale was evaluated using intraclass correlations, using a two-way mixed model Fleiss and Cohen
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The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation, including analysis on the one-dimensional structure of the ECBI scales using item response theory. The results also indicated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability community sample , and good convergent and divergent validity. Findings support the use of the ECBI as a reliable measure for child disruptive behavior problems in a Dutch population. Suggestions for the optimal use of the both ECBI scales for research and screening purposes are made. Persistently high levels of aggressive, oppositional, and impulsive behavior in young children are serious risk factors for negative developmental outcomes in adolescence and adulthood Broidy et al. If left untreated, conduct-disordered behavior in young children can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of functioning including difficulties in family, peer, school, and community interactions Broidy et al. Long-term costs for education, mental health services, justice and social services are estimated at ten times higher for children with disruptive behavior disorders compared to children with no problems Lee et al.
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