For other information, see the Ghostscript overview and, if necessary, how to install Ghostscript. This document describes how to use the command line Ghostscript client. Ghostscript is also used as a general engine inside other applications for viewing files for example. Please refer to the documentation for those applications for using Ghostscript in other contexts. The command line to invoke Ghostscript is essentially the same on all systems, although the name of the executable program itself may differ among systems.
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For other information, see the Ghostscript overview and, if necessary, how to install Ghostscript. Invoking Ghostscript This document describes how to use the command line Ghostscript client. Ghostscript is also used as a general engine inside other applications for viewing files for example. Please refer to the documentation for those applications for using Ghostscript in other contexts.
The command line to invoke Ghostscript is essentially the same on all systems, although the name of the executable program itself may differ among systems. Here are some basic examples. The details of how these work are described below. There are other utility scripts besides ps2pdf , including pdf2ps , ps2epsi , pdf2dsc , ps2ascii , ps2ps and ps2ps2.
These just call Ghostscript with the appropriate if complicated set of options. You can use the 'ps2' set with eps files. The interpreter reads and executes the files in sequence, using the method described under " File searching " to find them. The interpreter runs in interactive mode by default. After processing the files given on the command line if any it reads further lines of PostScript language commands from the primary input stream, normally the keyboard, interpreting each line separately.
To quit the interpreter, type " quit ". The interpreter also quits gracefully if it encounters end-of-file or control-C. The interpreter recognizes many options. An option may appear anywhere in the command line, and applies to all files named after it on the line. The most important are described in detail here. Please see the reference sections on options and devices for a more complete listing.
Help at the command line: gs -h You can get a brief help message by invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -? Ghostscript comes with a diverse variety of such devices supporting vector and raster file output, screen display, driving various printers and communicating with other applications.
If this option isn't given the default device usually a display device is used. For complete description of the devices distributed with Ghostscript and their options, please see the devices section of the documentation. Note that this switch must precede the name of the first input file, and only its first use has any effect. You can set the output device and process a file from the interactive prompt as well: epson selectdevice myfile. You can switch devices at any time by using the selectdevice procedure, for instance like one of these: x11alpha selectdevice epson selectdevice Output resolution Some printers can print at several different resolutions, letting you balance resolution against printing speed.
Where the two resolutions are same, as is the common case, you can simply use -r res. The -r option is also useful for controlling the density of pixels when rasterizing to an image file. It is used this way in the examples at the beginning of this document. Output to files Ghostscript also allows you to control where it sends its output.
With a display device this isn't necessary as the device handles presenting the output on screen internally. Some specialized printer drivers operate this way as well, but most devices are general and need to be directed to a particular file or printer. For instance, to direct all output into the file ABC. On Unix and VMS systems it normally goes to a temporary file which is sent to the printer in a separate step.
When using Ghostscript as a file rasterizer converting PostScript or PDF to a raster image format you will of course want to specify an appropriately named file for the output.
Ghostscript also accepts the special filename ' - ' which indicates the output should be written to standard output the command shell. You can tell Ghostscript to put each page of output in a series of similarly named files.
The format specifier is of a form similar to the C printf format. Also, since some devices write output files when opened, there may be an extra blank page written pdfwrite, ps2write, eps2write, pxlmono, pxlcolor, As noted above, when using MS Windows console command. This is intended to be a quick way to invoke ghostscript to convert one or more input files.
For instance, to convert somefile. Individual documents can and often do specify a paper size, which takes precedence over the default size.
The default set of paper sizes will be included in the currentpagedevice in the InputAttributes dictionary with each paper size as one of the entries. The last entry in the dictionary which has numeric keys is a non-standard Ghostscript extension type of PageSize where the array has four elements rather than the standard two elements.
This four element array represents a page size range where the first two elements are the lower bound of the range and the second two are the upper bound.
By default these are [0, 0] for the lower bound and [16 fffff, 16 fffff] for the upper bound. For actual printers, either the entire InputAttributes dictionary should be replaced or the range type entry should not be included. Using this option will result in automatic rotation of the document page if the requested page size matches one of the default page sizes.
This allows the -dPSFitPage option to fit the page size requested in a PostScript file to be rotated, scaled and centered for the best fit on the specified page.
See the section on finding files for details. Sometimes the initialization files are compiled into Ghostscript and cannot be changed. On Windows and some Linux builds, the default paper size will be selected to be a4 or letter depending on the locale.
Interacting with pipes As noted above, input files are normally specified on the command line. However, one can also "pipe" input into Ghostscript from another program by using the special file name ' - ' which is interpreted as standard input. Because of this, options and files after the ' - ' in the command line will be ignored.
On Unix and MS Windows systems you can send output to a pipe in the same way. In the last case, -q isn't necessary since Ghostscript handles the pipe itself and messages sent to stdout will be printed as normal. All the normal switches and procedures for interpreting PostScript files also apply to PDF files, with a few exceptions. This is useful for creating fixed size images of PDF files that may have a variety of page sizes, for example thumbnail images.
This option is also set by the -dFitPage option. If neither of these is specified, the output will use the screen options for any output device that doesn't have an OutputFile parameter, and the printer options for devices that do have this parameter. This may include any extra bleed area needed to accommodate the physical limitations of cutting, folding, and trimming equipment.
The actual printed page may include printing marks that fall outside the bleed box. The trim box defines the intended dimensions of the finished page after trimming. Some files have a TrimBox that is smaller than the MediaBox and may include white space, registration or cutting marks outside the CropBox. Using this option simulates appearance of the finished printed page. The art box defines the extent of the page's meaningful content including potential white space as intended by the page's creator.
The art box is likely to be the smallest box. It can be useful when one wants to crop the page as much as possible without losing the content. Unlike the other "page boundary" boxes, CropBox does not have a defined meaning, it simply provides a rectangle to which the page contents will be clipped cropped.
By convention, it is often, but not exclusively, used to aid the positioning of content on the usually larger, in these cases media. For files created with encryption method 4 or earlier, the password is an arbitrary string of bytes; with encryption method 5 or later, it should be text in either UTF-8 or your locale's character set Ghostscript tries both.
Annotations are shown by default. Annoation types listed in this array will be drawn, whilst those not listed will not be drawn. By default, AcroForm is not enumerated because Adobe Acrobat doesn't do this. This option may be useful for debugging or recovery of incorrect PDF files that don't associate all annotations with the page objects. This may be useful for backward compatibility with old versions of Ghostscript and Adobe Acrobat, or for processing files with large values of UserUnit that otherwise exceed implementation limits.
On TrueType fonts, this is often a hollow sqaure. Ghostscript now attempts to mimic this undocumented feature using a user parameter RenderTTNotdef. Pages of all documents in PDF collections are numbered sequentionally. A list can include single pages or ranges of pages. Ranges of pages use the minus sign '-', individual pages and ranges of pages are separated by commas ','. A trailing minus '-' means process all remaining pages. The PDF interpreter and the other language interpreters handle these in slightly different ways.
Because PDF files enable random access to pages in the document the PDF inerpreter only interprets and renders the required pages. PCL and PostScript cannot be handled in ths way, and so all the pages must be interpreted. However only the requested pages are rendered, which can still lead to savings in time.
Because the PostScript and PCL interpreters cannot determine when a document terminates, sending multple files as input on the command line does not reset the PageList between each document, each page in the second and subsequent documents is treated as following on directly from the last page in the first document.
The PDF interpreter, however, does not work this way. The PostScript interpreter, by contrast, would only render pages 1 and 2 from the first file. This means you must exercise caution when using this switch, and probably should not use it at all when processing a mixture of PostScript and PDF files on the same command line.
Occasionally you may try to read or print a 'PDF' file that Ghostscript doesn't recognize as PDF, even though the same file can be opened and interpreted by an Adobe Acrobat viewer. In many cases, this is because of incorrectly generated PDF. Acrobat tends to be very forgiving of invalid PDF files. Ghostscript tends to expect files to conform to the standard.
In the past, Ghostscript's policy has been to simply fail with an error message when confronted with these files. This policy has, no doubt, encouraged PDF generators to be more careful. However, we now recognize that this behavior is not very friendly for people who just want to use Ghostscript to view or print PDF files.
[gs-devel] Unable to rasterize PDF with Chinese fonts embedded and 1 font not embedded
For other information, see the Ghostscript overview. You may also be interested in how to build Ghostscript and install it , as well as the description of the driver interface. Documentation for some older, superceded devices has been moved to another document. In general such devices are deprecated and will be removed in future versions of Ghostscript. In general all older printer drivers can be replaced by the ijs interface and one of the available 3rd party raster driver collections.
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