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Login Register. Social Science Political Science. Thank you for your participation! Document related concepts. Feminist criticism seeks to reassess the modern narratological theories in term of gender, social and power relations. As Genette has pointed out, there are three crucial components in narratology: tense, mood and voice. One cannot discard the importance of this approach since all scholars that have addressed the issue of the Alexiad have dealt in some way with the question of female authorship.
It is enough to quote some passages from recent publications on Anna Komnene and her work to delineate this matter of importance: For the authorial voice of Anna Komnene cf.
An Introduction to Theory and Research, Blackwell , p. Lanser, Susan S. Lanser, S. She was also highly intelligent and well educated; she has distinction of being the only secular woman historian of the European Middle Ages, and a historian of the highest caliber. Although tempting, this terminology jeopardises the methodology of historical contextualisation and inevitably leads into anachronistic interpretations of different historical phenomena.
The main problem lies in the methodology that is applied in search for an answer. Nevertheless, I think there is possibility to address this matter, but only through lenses of medieval conceptions of women and their social constructions of gender expected behaviour its boundaries and limitations.
From modern perspective, we are actually in search of a proto-feminist behaviour. This term appears more convenient for overcoming unintentional anachronisms, and delineates precise boundaries of our investigation. Or even more tempting, in which ways did p. Gouma-Peterson, Th. Also, I do not think we should avoid modern terms as an interpretive vehicle for historical contextualisation, since its essential foundation lies in a constant dialogue between synchronic and diachronic readings of narratives.
See Lanser, S. Nevertheless, when speaking of individuals, and of organising relations of inequalities in a society, one must take into consideration the race, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, religion, etc. When referring to the social class, in regard to the Byzantine epoch, and particularly the Komnenian epoch, we should always consider the stratification of the Constantinopolitan social elites, who were part of the ruling imperial house.
Even the elementary conception of Anna Komnene as a female writer encompasses possible anachronistic interpretations, since when denominating her history as a literary work we are not referring to belles lettres or a work of fiction. This basic notion of an author of a historical work in the 12th century Byzantium calls for serious reconsiderations of female self-consciousness. My aim in this paper is to present the narrative levels on which this creation of a new discourse was established.
That can sometimes leave a distorted picture of the literary categories we deal with. Even though it is the only one, it is still inevitably peculiar and unique. Edited by Margaret Mullet. For a counter-argument see especially Macrides, R. What are the feminine modes of discourse in this work? We are certainly able to discern the elements of female authorship in case of the Alexiad. When it comes to the narrative structure, it is difficult to discern the female authorial practices, since we do not have at least one similar source for comparison.
This statement 19 A path-breaking essay in feminist narratology is Lanser, Susan S. Neville, L. The most important trait of the feminist narratology in relation to the classical narratology is that feminism calls for a contextualisation of the narratives, while the classical narratology seeks to establish universal typology and terminology embedded only in language and text. In this sense, the approach that I use is one of feminist and contextual narratology,23 since narrative poetics is absolutely dependable upon the historical, religious, social and cultural contexts.
And dealing with the medieval narrative, written by a woman, all these aspects inevitably arise as the pivotal tenets of understanding the narrative poetics of the Alexiad.
Are there any constructions of female heroes in contrast to male heroes and what are their political implications? Columbus Ohio The main weak spot of the feminist narratology was that it was based on the Euro-American, white, upper-class female individuals that were writers of fictional literature in the last two centuries. This further implicates that the important aspects of race, ethnicity, social class, or even religion, are not considered in general theories of feminist narratology.
Thus, for example, social implications of motherhood differ across spatial and temporal spheres, and highly depend on class, religion, culture, politics and all other social vectors. A study, London , p. Therefore, I would again address the important issue of the political background of the Alexiad, and the alleged conspiracy against John II Komnenos.
Therefore, her discourse, or the Neville, L. Nevertheless, despite the possibility of her lament being an authorial voice of self-abasement and the convenient discourse for the female authorial voice especially, I contend that this lament was used as a rhetorical tool for promoting a specific political ideology. Anna used her narrative in order to promote her personal political ideology that is much more complicated than being defined as just a defiance of her brother John.
She used the ancient typology on female behaviour to express her emotions, and to make them a subject of her history. It is also interesting that she used the rules of composing a monody,34 as its paradigms were, according to Menander Rhetor, found in the laments of Andromache, Priam and Hecuba.
Russell and N. Wilson, Oxford: Clarendon Press , furhter in text: Men. The Emperor cries because of his fallen soldiers. Reinsch, A. Kambylis, Walter de Gruyter The Emperor cries over his fallen war compatriots in the same manner as she cries over her beloved ones. Also, apart from Alexios, we see other male actants, or groups of people, expressing their emotions through tears.
What is important to highlight in this regard is that Anna Dalassene does not cry at all. And this notion is crucial for our analysis of this key female figure of the Alexiad, who was adorned exclusively with male qualities.
The Iliad, Transl. Munro David B. Il, Story level This sophisticated narrative structure bears other important elements of female discourse. Female protagonists act as mothers, wives or daughters. We also have explications of the authoress on the perception of an ideal wife and daughter, being herself a devoted daughter to her imperial parents.
The most important character is Anna Dalassene, the mother of the Komnenoi. Her agency was bound to her role of a mother and her specific function of a widow in the role of a father. She was a sole foster of her five sons and three daughters. Also, Dalassene acted in favour of her sons before the emperor against the allegations on their conspiracy.
Another character who takes part in this chapter is Maria of Bulgaria, protovestiaria and mother of Eirene Doukaina. And afterwards she succeeds in persuading another important male member of their house to side with them against the emperor. We see Anna Dalassene protecting the female members of her house, but also addressing the emperor on the matter of false allegations against her sons, and thus acquiring the time they needed.
Women perform actions simultaneously with male characters in the crucial hours of the Komnenian revolt, and their spatial setting is within Constantinople, the palace, church and monastery. As for the men, their final action starts beyond Constantinople, from the war camp. These two spatial spheres are typical settings for male and female agency.
Palace is mostly reserved as a spatial setting for a female agency. Women from the two houses — Komnenoi and Doukai — have the prudence, courage, persuasiveness and wealth to help the Komnenian coup. Neither role — male or female — is reduced. The characters are divided to women and men and they act simultaneously. The only difference is that the leader of the Komnenian oikos is a woman — Anna Dalassene — while the leader of the Doukai oikos is cesar John. Alexias II 6,3 The problem was finally resolved in favour of Eirene Doukaina, but her actual role was reserved for later books.
Another important character in the story of the Komnenian coup is empress Maria of Alania, whose agency is also based on her role as a mother.
Her spatial setting is a palace, and she is the main character of the actions that happened within the palace. But this issue is not so important for our theme.
As we have already stressed, women act within the expected categories of their behaviour: 1. The role of women is in no way diminished in relation to the role of men, and in some parts of the narrative it is even dominant. Neither Ataleiates, Psellos nor Bryennios linger on the character of Maria of Alania, and her role in the aforementioned events.
Nevertheless, Anna Komnene is an impressive literary virtuoso, as she plays with stereotypes and invests these roles with a political agency. Therefore, a mother is never defined as a biological mother, a passive figure deprived of agency, but as a sign of agency, and the way a specific character acts and performs his or her action.
In a specific family-bound imperial ideology, as was a case with the Komnenian ideology, familial connections were the main predisposition for advancement and political influence in the highest social strata of the Empire.
The Komnenian type of government conceived a unique political ideology that was encoded in the words denoting familial relations. Thus, she was connecting herself exclusively both to the Doukai and the Komnenoi, nibbling on the idea of a double legitimacy, which she defined through the symbolism of her filial devotion to her parents.
The connection with emperor Alexios was crucial for his descendants who sought to represent themselves just as exclusively bound to their father emperor, and thus competing for his succession. In its essence, it is a story of a devoted and good daughter that dedicated all her life to this literary endeavour, and it should be considered as her political endowment.
The Alexiad was written by a woman, and it was also ordered by a woman. The first was the celebration of the Doukai in relation to the Komnenians, and the latter was the construction of a double legitimacy through the usage of encrypted imperial vocabulary in relation to John Komnenos and his establishment of the dynasty. Characterisation of female heroes The Alexiad shows remarkable transgressions of binary gendering in the characterisation of female characters.
We can observe how the social construct of gender was reframed through the focus of a female author. Anna Komnene was vacillating the seemingly predetermined boundaries of gender, and moulded some of her female characters through the categories of male behaviour.
Charles Diehl ~ Istorija Vizantijskog Carstva
Embed Size px x x x x Istorija vizantiskog carstva, i pored radova koji su je za poslednjih pedeset godina skoro preporodili, ipak je jo uvek, naroito na Zapadu, predmet upornih predrasuda. Mnogi od naih sa vremenika je i danas smatraju, poput Monteskjea i Gibona, produenjem i opadanjem rimskoga carstva. Pod uticajem nesvesnih posledica vekovne mrnje i tamnog seanja na prohujale verske strasti mi i danas sudimo o srednjevekovnim Grcima kao to su o njima sudili krstai koji ih nisu razumeli i pape koje su ih iskljuile iz crkve. Isto tako, vizantiska se umetnost jo suvie esto smatra okamenjenom umetnou, - "hijeratinom", kako se vrlo rado govori, - nesposobnom za obnovu i koja je, pod strogim nadzorom crkve, ograniila svoj hiljadugodinji napor na beskrajno umnoavanje dela nekolicine genijalnih umetnika. U stvari, Vizantija je bila neto sasvim drugo. Ma da se ona dragovoljno proglasila naslednicom i nastavljaicom Rima, ma da su se njeni carevi, do poslednjeg dana, nazivali "vasileusima Romeja", ma da se oni nikada nisu odrekli prava koja su polagali na staru i slavnu prestonicu carstva, ipak je Vizantija postala vrlo brzo i bila u sutini istona carevina.
History and Instruments of Constantinople’s Jerusalemization
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CARL VERHEYEN INTERVALLIC ROCK PDF
Pre-requisites: Enrollment in fourth year history studies, or in the appropriate year at other programs for this course - in both cases, with approval of the lecturer. Course objectives: The objective of this course is to understand the socio-political status and role of women in a state and society that are considered to be dominated by men. Various life and social situations will be presented that portray the unsustainability of cliche and stereotype when attempting to understand byzantine women. Course description: In Byzantine history, women mostly occupied traditional roles and positions that were characteristic of the times. Their roles, and most of their life paths, have remained deeply concealed beneath the surface of historical events that have attracted the most attention and been historically preserved. Attention will be given to the political role of certain prominent byzantine women, both in their effect on men's attitudes towards women and status and attempts at reconstructing their reality in different spheres of life for byzantine women. Learning Outcomes: An understanding of reality in a complex society, ways of women's living in male dominated settings, and "gender sensitivity" of byzantine people.
Isak II Anđeo