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After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in this area, it is still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic sanitation, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities. Increasing international initiatives employ composite indicators to measure the performance of cities, compare them and use them to influence national and international political discussions.
The results show three indicators that compose a municipal index and indicate the need for data to fully evaluate sanitation. In Brazil there are roughly 3. Only This data demonstrates the need for improvements in basic sanitation. To do this, it will be necessary to monitor the sanitation situation in municipalities to determine the dimensions of the effort and resources necessary.
By monitoring sanitation in the municipalities, public administration can plan specific actions, establish performance and quality metrics, and orient public policies. Since this is an explanatory study, our application focuses on a group of municipalities to evaluate the possibility of this type of usage. Qualitative research provides more profound research about a given situation Cooper and Schindler, , and this is why we have applied it in order to understand the components and attributes of sanitation.
The analysis of the variables used to elaborate the composite indicators for basic sanitation is based on the Handbook on constructing composite indicators Giovannini et al. Step 3 is based on exploratory factor analysis FA to determine the structure of the relationships between the variables Corrar, Paulo and Dias Filho, Even though FA is generally just for metric variables, Hair and collaborators consider it acceptable to include a small number of dichotomic variables among the metric variables analyzed by factors.
To accomplish this, we used 83 metric variables, and 9 dichotomic variables related to urban drainage which has a scarcity of data. In terms of the sample size, according to Hair and collaborators , there need to be more observations than variables, with the minimum acceptable ratio being and the ideal being The sample consisted of observations the quantity of municipalities and 92 variables, equivalent to a ratio of , the minimum acceptable as a general rule.
The municipalities selected for the analysis were those which possessed a majority of the information related to the four components of basic sanitation, this being a sample that conveniently represents After these tests, we used an octagonal rotation using the Varimax method to interpret the solution.
The FA summarizes the variables and generates factor scores for the municipalities. According to Hair and collaborators , the factor score represents the degree to which each municipality has a an elevated score within the group of items that have elevated weights for a given factor; that is, higher values with elevated weights for a factor result in a larger factor score. The justification for this factor score is that it is computed based on the factor weights of all of the variables that make up a factor, avoiding a repetition of information.
For the municipality groupings, we have adopted the city typology as suggested by Meijering, Kern and Tobi , avoiding the comparison of municipalities that have different characteristics. Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector to monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning of these services Sperling and Sperling, From the point of view of public administration, the monitoring of data is important and necessary in order to accompany the progress of activities, improve the transparency of the accounting, and demonstrate results Schwemlein, Cronk and Bartram, According to Kern apud Meijering, Kern and Tobi, , one tool that has often been used to influence national and international political discussions is the European green city rankings.
There is also a sanitation ranking initiative that has been undertaken by the government of India. What these three rankings have in common is that they are based on indicators or indices that are applied to cities and that range in number from 12 to Thematic content analysis of the Sanitation Law confirmed four components: 1.
Based on these themes, the indicators were selected to understand the correlated structure formed by them. The concept of adequate sanitation was also defined through a thematic content analysis of the principles of the Sanitation Law, which have been grouped by these themes, forming the attributes of box 2.
Of the 16 attributes, the data selection managed to include only eight of them, and some of them only partially. This is an estimate, because an attribute cannot always be measured by just one indicator. Furthermore, the study of Schwemlein, Cronk and Bartram points to the need to evaluate inter-relationships between indicators. In terms of universalization, the SNIS is still not able to furnish information about sanitation in the rural and peripheral areas discussed in the study conducted by Schneider and collaborators Source: Elaborated by the authors.
To summarize these characteristics, we applied factor analysis using R, which analyzes a group of variables to identify its latent dimensions. The correlation matrix analysis considered only values above 0.
The criteria for the extraction of the number of factors was the latent root, with only eigenvalues greater than 1 being considered significant, which resulted in three factors or latent dimensions: the coverage of water supply, sewage and solid waste services WSW Coverage which explains In total, the factors explain The factor loads are the correlations of each variable with the factor, the lowest load being 0. The degree to which the results can be generalized was tested by dividing the sample randomly into two sub-samples and the results of the Varimax rotation loads, the commonalities, and the factor structure proved to be stable, because there was no representative load of the variable in other factors.
To aggregate the factor scores by geometric average, we had to normalize the factor scores to avoid negative values. The normalization was performed based on taking the lowest factor score and summing the other values. In addition, it was necessary to differentiate the value of zero, to not arrive at a geometric value of zero, by considering the value closest to zero. In terms of the weighting, in FA the weighting intervenes to correct the overlapping of information between two or more correlated indicators and does not measure the theoretical importance associated with the indicator Giovannini et al.
In this sense, different weights were not attributed due to theoretical importance; equal weights were considered for all of the factors. In terms of the aggregation of the factors, we opted for the geometric average due to facility of applying it and to reduce, at least partially, the problem of it being a compensatory technique. Table 2 shows the quantities of the state municipalities and their respective typologies as well as those of the sample. It may be noted that the municipalities not included in the analysis due to a lack of data did not significantly affect the representativeness of the sample, given that the proportions were maintained.
Only Profile I had a large reduction in representativeness. In terms of the WSW Coverage indicator, the value of 25 is much larger than the second largest value. In general, the MBSI values for municipalities are very close to each other. However, in terms of the indicators W Efficiency and D Efficiency, more differences emerge among these municipalities. The strong points of the elaborated sanitation indicators are: their capacity to classify municipalities in a quantitative manner, making it possible to make comparisons based on typologies considering characteristics in common, that they make it possible to visualize their values by dimension WSW Coverage, W Efficiency, D Efficiency , and that they provide a measure that unites various aspects of adequate sanitation.
The visualization of the classification results facilitates the interpretation of information in a clear and objective manner. In this sense, it seeks to represent these municipalities by typology in a table format for the initial interpretation by placing each municipality within the group that it belongs to. The second form of analysis is the value of each of the factors.
Overall it follows a standard structure: the presentation, executive summary, methodology, results, and final considerations. This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation. Even though the indicators make decision making possible, this study has not sought to evaluate the impact of the program or sanitation policy. In terms of limitations, we can cite the lack of available data for all of the municipalities, the reliability of the collected data, the difficulty of integrating information from various databases, the manner of comparing municipalities based on profiles, and the aggregation of data which has the limitation of using a compensatory method, even though this was only used to a partial extent.
As far as opportunities are concerned, this methodology can be applied to other states in future studies, and there is a need for greater breadth in terms of indicators to monitor adequate sanitation services in these municipalities. Lei n o Acesso em: 2 jun.
Porto Alegre: Bookman, Handbook on constructing composite indicators : methodology and user guide. Rio de Janeiro, Acesso em jun. A study of sanitation of toilets in elementary and senior Secondary schools located in rural areas of Uttarakhand state in India.
International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , v. Identifying the methodological characteristics of European green city rankings. Ecological Indicators , v. Acesso em ago. Plos Medicine , v. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente. Indicators for monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene: a systematic review of indicator selection methods. Acesso em: 19 ago. E-mail: alyninn gmail. E-mail: soniavw terra. Services on Demand Journal. Forum: Practical Perspectives Sanitation indicators: analysis of variables to construct municipality indicators.
Abstract After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in this area, it is still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic sanitation, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities. Introduction In Brazil there are roughly 3. Sanitation indicators Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector to monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning of these services Sperling and Sperling, Results and discussion: the elaboration of sanitation indicators 4.
Final considerations This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation. Received: August 19, ; Accepted: April 27, How to cite this article.
R2 — Urban population served by the household collection service inhabitants.
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Please contact customerservices lexology. The Brazilian government issued Provisional Measure No. ANA is expected to provide general standards and guidelines for basic sanitation public services, such as: service levels, tariff regulation and competition rules, among others. Therefore, the regulation provided by ANA must consider the particularities and characteristics of each region in which the sanitation services are rendered. The Sanitation Law Law No. Municipal and district-level legal competence to render basic sanitation public services has been reaffirmed, except where such services are provided at the regional level e.
Brazilian Government Revises Regulation of Basic Sanitation Framework
The Brazilian National Sanitation Policy establishes the principles for the provision of public sanitation services, such as water supply, sewage treatment and management of municipal solid waste MSW . The proper disposal of solid waste is intrinsically linked to the preservation of the environment and public health . It has been identified that the waste production in Brazil is growing in greater proportion than the population . Thus, the proper final disposal of MSW is of great importance, because the environmental cost of inadequate provision is related to the contamination of soil, groundwater and atmosphere . According to PNRS the disposal of MSW in open dumps and uncontrolled landfills should have ended by the year ; however, this did not happen. About Brazilian cities still have their solid waste disposed of in inappropriate places .
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