As there are no field studies on human leptospirosis in Kerala, we undertook this seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in the two hamlets of Ernakulam district in Kerala to identify locally prevalent serogroups, and to understand local epidemiological features of the disease. Methods: Blood samples were collected for five consecutive years from persons willing to subject themselves for the study from the selected areas Kunnackal and Kunnakkurudy hamlets. Animal studies were conducted among samples from rodents captured from the area by the human volunteers themselves. Antibody titres were determined by microscopic agglutination test MAT.
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Background: Leptospirosis is a common zoonosis caused by bacteria, Leptospira. The core determinants of the disease are the presence of carrier animals, environmental factors and the interaction between man, carrier and the environment.
Understanding the type of relation between these factors and leptospirosis will help in controlling the disease. The current study intends to find the trend of leptospirosis cases, to forecast the disease and to correlate number of cases of leptospirosis with meteorological factors. Methods: The data of leptospirosis cases and the meteorological factors in Thrissur district were collected and entered in MS- Excel and statistical analysis was done using SPSS For analysing the trend and to forecast the same, time series analysis method was used.
The correctness of the model was tested using Ljung-Box statistics. Results: Time series chart, autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation show leptospirosis follows a seasonal trend. Forecasting of leptospirosis cases from July to May made by the model matched with original number reported in Thrissur district.
Cross correlation of total rainfall and total rainy days showed that leptospirosis peak approximately 1 month after the onset or together with the rain lag-1 and 0, r0.
Humidity positively affects number of leptospirosis cases lag-1 and 0, r0. Conclusions: Leptospirosis shows a seasonal trend with more cases in June to October and correlates with change in meteorological factors of the region. Accessed on 30 August Regional office for South East Asia. Leptospirosis-fact sheet. World health Organisation. Leptospirosis- fact sheet for clinicians. Leptospirosis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology.
The influence of climatic factors on the development of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and leptospirosis during the peak season in Korea: an ecologic study. BMC Infect Dis. Box-Ljung Test. Accessed on 31 August Time Series Model Nugget, Available at: www. Director of health services. Public Health. Public health data, DHS Kerala. Seasonality of leptospirosis and its association with rainfall and humidity in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra.
Int J Health Allied Sci. Technical Factsheets, The correlation between local weather and leptospirosis incidence in Kandy district, Sri Lanka from to Glob Health Action. The non-linear and lagged short-term relationship between rainfall and leptospirosis and the intermediate role of floods in the Philippines.
Relation of rainfall pattern and epidemic leptospirosis in the Indian state of Kerala. J Epidemiol Community Health.
Modeling seasonal leptospirosis transmission and its association with rainfall and temperature in Thailand using time-series and ARIMAX analyses. Asian Pacific J Trop Med.
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How to cite item. Finding References. Email this article Login required. Trend of leptospirosis and its association with meteorological factors in Thrissur district, Kerala.
Abstract Background: Leptospirosis is a common zoonosis caused by bacteria, Leptospira. Full Text: PDF. References WHO. Accessed on 30 August Leptospirosis- fact sheet for clinicians. Remember me.
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Outbreak of Leptospirosis in Kerala
Around 90 confirmed leptospirosis cases have been reported in the state this month. The increase in the number of leptospirosis cases reported in Kerala after the extreme rains, floods and landslides has caused major concern. In August alone, three people have died due to leptospirosis and about 90 confirmed cases have been reported from across the state. It is transmitted through direct contact with body fluids, usually the urine, of an infected animal, or through contact with soil or water which has been contaminated with infected urine. When a person with wound comes in contact with contaminated water, the bacteria is likely to enter the body through it. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, muscle pain, and excessive tiredness.
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Kerala sees spike in leptospirosis cases after floods, 3 deaths in August
In South Asia, the monsoon brings life to vegetation, but at the same time has potential to cause public health problems. Notably, the climate change due to global warming is affecting the extent of monsoon rainfall in the region causing flooding which increases the risks of major disease outbreaks. Flooding and standing water after heavy rainfall increases the risk of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, malaria, plague, chikungunya, typhoid, cholera and Leptospirosis. Worldwide, Leptospirosis is one of the most common and emerging zoonoses, except on the North and South Poles. Rat fever or leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the spiral-shaped bacteria spirochete of the genus Leptospira [ 1 ]. This infection is mainly seen in wild and even domesticated species of rodents. Rats are the primary reservoir of leptospirosis, although farm animals and livestock, such as horses, pigs, dogs or cattle, and even wild animals can also be a reservoir for the bacteria.
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