Elibro Catedra. Author, Nassir Sapag Chain. Contributor, e-libro, Corp. Edition, 5. Publisher, McGraw-Hill. Un capitulo nuevo de evaluacion social de proyectos; criterios de evaluacion del impacto ambiental; incorporacion de los efectos tributarios en el costo del proyecto; el uso de Excel para lo Figuras.
|Published (Last):||4 March 2014|
|PDF File Size:||4.22 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||16.94 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The University has the essential function of research, in addition to continuing with the professional training of those who graduate. This research presented how was the growth of postgraduate studies and the evolution of scientific research in Peruvian universities, as well as the socialization of the results of such research in high impact journals.
The review showed that the themes of teaching and learning methods prevail, there is little impact and little visibility of the thesis and students prefer to publish their research as a book. It is sought that universities offer an optimal and quality educational service. At present, education manages to stimulate the competitiveness of nations by being constituted, not only as a strategy that promotes the development of knowledge and the formation of communities, but also as the means that increases the intellectual capital of society Silas, Hence, it is urgent to raise awareness among all those involved politicians, rulers, university authorities, the productive sector, among others about the importance and social need to structure policies and systems of postgraduate studies, because these allow the creation of Scientific, technical and humanistic knowledge that society requires, based on research.
Hence, the present research sought to present how the development of the postgraduate courses and the evolution of the research in the universities of Peru has been, in order to have an overview of what exists and what is expected in a modern society. The referenced documentary sources include scientific articles, internet documents and legal sources from Peru.
High impact databases Scopus, WoS and SciELO were also consulted to know the status of scientific publications in public and private universities of the Peruvian university system. According to Barrios , since , the year of the first University Census, to the year , the second University Census in Peru, there is a notable increase in university institutions nationwide.
In , 57 universities were registered in the country, almost equally public and private universities 28 public and 29 private. In there were universities, with a considerable growth of private universities, which amounted to a total of 65, increasing by 1.
Barrios Currently, according to the National Superintendence of Higher University Education, created on January 26, , there are universities, 51 public and 92 private universities in the country. It is relevant to note that Peru is the second country that has more universities in South America.
Brazil surpasses it with , which has a population seven times greater. On the other hand, public and private universities must also go through a licensing process by the National Superintendence of Higher University Education.
This is to verify if the university meets the basic quality conditions CBC that allow it to offer an optimal educational service; In addition to monitoring whether the resources are allocated for educational purposes and quality improvement. For licensing, CBCs are taken into account, which are minimum standards, which serve as general guidelines for the evaluation of the university's capacity, for the provision of the university higher education service and authorization of its operation.
These are:. Condition I: existence of academic objectives, degrees and degrees to be awarded, and corresponding curricula. Condition II: educational offer compatible with the purposes proposed in the planning instruments. Condition III: adequate infrastructure and equipment to fulfill its functions classrooms, libraries, laboratories, among others. Condition VI: verification of basic complementary educational services medical, social, psycho pedagogical, sports service, among others.
Postgraduate studies in Peru date back to , the first institution to offer this program were the National Agrarian University with the specialty of Agriculture. These studies are academic programs that are offered with the purpose of training high-level human resources, capable of applying, deepening and innovating knowledge in specific areas of science, technology and humanities.
They are done after obtaining the bachelor's degree. To be a master you must be a bachelor and to be a doctor you must be a master. In the case of the second professional specialty, a bachelor's degree or other equivalent degree is necessary. Postgraduates in Peru have been governed by a double regulation: on the one hand, the one established in university laws, and, on the other, in the internal norms of each university.
In the latter framework, it should be noted that it is the private institutions that have the greatest autonomy to establish them. With respect to the first regulations, the last two university laws Peru. The congress of the Republic, , order that only universities can organize masters and doctoral studies. Congress of the Republic, there are clear differences in terms of master's and doctoral studies.
For example, it is pointed out that the PhD seeks the development of knowledge at the highest level with the support of a thesis of maximum academic rigor and original character, where in addition, one of the two foreign languages can be replaced by a native language and that its duration is at least six academic semesters.
When comparing the law of with that of , it can be seen that there was no clarity about the purpose of doctoral studies, which has been overcome with the new one. National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, , it has been determined that, in Peru, there are 30 doctoral programs in education in 29 universities, of which half belong to public universities; and the other, to private universities.
However, it is worth clarifying that so far there are no official data that allow us to specify the evolution of the postgraduate course, although there are others more global about its growth in the case of doctoral programs, which have been developed under questionable conditions due to the limited regulations for evaluation, approval and accreditation. According to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics of Peru in the students of public universities made up the majority In the reference period, postgraduate students multiplied by 5.
The growth of the university population is significantly greater than the population growth of the country. The interannual growth rate is 6. Graduate population growth doubles this figure, rising to National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, Another interesting fact is the growth of private universities by four percentage points compared to public universities Table 1.
Although today's world demands a constant update from professionals to compete in better conditions in the labor market, National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, , of the population of postgraduate students, women have greater representation both in the master's degree and in the II specialization with Men, on the other hand, have a greater participation in the doctorate with Note: Includes all the universities that have been formally functioning in the Peruvian University System.
Observing the age composition of graduate students, the highest concentration in population, both in public and private universities is in the age group of 25 to 30 years The age groups between the ages of 20 and 35 make up the majority of graduate students.
According to the information found from the different universities that offer postgraduate degrees in education, the highest percentage of postgraduate studies are regular basic education teachers, then teachers from public and private universities of the different universities of the Peru and a smaller percentage other professionals. In the case of teachers of basic education, their participation in postgraduate courses becomes more active as a result of the application of the Law of the Teaching Public Career Peru Congress of the Republic, , where meritocracy is prioritized.
But it was with the Magisterial Reform Law Peru. Congress of the Republic, , approved in by the Congress of the Republic, which establishes a teaching career based on merit, whose main objective is to promote the professional development of teachers, providing greater benefits and better working conditions as a key axis to improve the teaching of education in our country , it is there where the debates on salary scales and their access to them begin that sidelined the importance of training teacher training that clearly identifies the teacher's training needs that enable incentives for teachers of outstanding performance.
In the case of professionals who carry out university teaching, the new University Law Peru. Congress of the Republic, says the following in its article For the exercise of university teaching, as an ordinary and hired teacher it is mandatory to have:. The degree of Master for training at the undergraduate level.
In this way, universities with postgraduate degrees in education are those that increase the number of students in their programs. The recognition of research in the university system is not new; the first and most significant impulse was given with the remembered Peruvian Educational Reform that appeared in , with the government of General Juan Velazco Alvarado.
This educational reform extends to the university level and in 50 years ago with the Organic Law of the Peruvian University Peru. Congress of the Republic, , research is considered as a basic function of the University.
There, research stands out as one of the essential purposes of the Peruvian university. In response to the impulse that should be given to research, it was from when universities began to organize and create the Vice-Rectorate for Research, one of them was the National University of San Marcos UNMSM. Then, in , University Law No. Congress of the Republic, is presented, which also presents research as a basic function of the University, highlighting the creation or adaptation of organs and dependencies to central level and at the level of graduate school and professionals and faculties.
It was with this law that a large part of Peruvian universities have been concerned with the creation of the vice-rector's office as a way of organizing and systematizing research. The effort of the National Council of Science Technology and Technological Innovation a b is commendable, to accredit researchers in our country by creating two important databases, one is the National Directory of Researchers and Innovators and the Registry of Researchers in Science and Technology of the National System of Science Technology and Technological Innovation.
The resume of the Peruvian professionals who carry out activities related to science, technology and innovation is registered in the National Directory of Researchers and Innovators. In the Registry of Researchers in Science and Technology of the National System of Science Technology and Technological Innovation that part of the National Directory of Researchers and Innovators the qualification of the professionals is carried out.
Currently, they are registered and qualified by the National Council of Science Technology and Technological Innovation in Peru a b , one thousand five hundred Peruvian researchers.
The figure falls short when compared to other countries in the region, such as Chile, which has 20, qualified researchers. In , there was an increase to million soles. But it did not affect the percentage of GDP since it remained the same Figure 2. Internationally, the figure of million soles is low when compared to the rest of the members of the Pacific Alliance.
If compared to the Latin American average, which represents 0. To achieve financing, it must be demonstrated that there are capacities and qualities that allow us to reach the minimum standards.
According to Marticorena , in Peru was in the penultimate place in Latin America in terms of investment in research and development, a situation that has not changed much so far Figure 3. Figure 4 shows that Peru is at a disadvantage with other countries in the region with regard to the number of researchers, since for every thousand members of the population considered economically active PEA only 0.
For of the total number of researchers, When comparing these percentages with what happens in other countries of the region, it is observed that the percentage of participation of women is higher, for example, Argentina Which shows that the average age of the researchers was 49 years regarding the distribution by age groups according to the sex of the researchers, the concentration in the age groups between 40 and 59 years is observed In the case of age groups under 39, the highest proportion was in women with Finally, it is important to note that in the last 20 years scientific production in Peru has grown proportionally, making it multiply by eight during that time.
A study of the Latin American ranking in the period allows us to understand that the countries with the highest scientific production are: Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba and Peru. The latter country has nine 9 journals indexed in Scopus, ranks 73rd worldwide; and has one in the second quartile, two in the third and four in the fourth.
When conducting an exploration in the public and private universities of our university system regarding its publication of articles in journals indexed in high impact databases Scopus, WoS or SciELO the following was found:.
Of the Peruvian universities, according to data from the National Superintendence of Higher University Education, only 14 publish 29 quality indexed journals, which represents a minimal portion. Of the 29 quality indexed journals, 21 are from private universities and 8 from public universities. Of the 14 universities that publish quality indexed journals, 10 are in Lima and 4 in other regions.
Of the 29 quality indexed journals the largest number is in the social sciences and humanities with 13, then the biomedical sciences with 8, the basic sciences 7, the business sciences 1. In the last 20 years the creation of Peruvian universities has grown rapidly, as well as postgraduate programs, which have been developed under questionable conditions, very distant from the quality policies of other countries in the region.
From 57 universities in to universities in , the number of private universities almost doubles the number of public universities.
The doctoral programs in education are insufficient and it is the private universities that have the largest number of students in the postgraduate course. Postgraduate studies have suffered variations in terms of duration, which is based on the basic quality conditions for granting licensing, both undergraduate and postgraduate.
On the other hand, in terms of research, the results reveal that postgraduate theses in education respond to a more professional orientation than scientific research, which has resulted in the non-socialization of the research results prior to the writing of the thesis, situation that detracts from the field of education a valuable potential to feed research and professional practices, in addition they do not allow a better positioning in the rankings of publications in the country.
Barrios, F. Apuntes en Ciencias Sociales, 3 2 , Casimiro, W. En, F.
AT-303P TOA PDF
7 Ley De Carrera Pública Magisterial_ Ley 29062
The University has the essential function of research, in addition to continuing with the professional training of those who graduate. This research presented how was the growth of postgraduate studies and the evolution of scientific research in Peruvian universities, as well as the socialization of the results of such research in high impact journals. The review showed that the themes of teaching and learning methods prevail, there is little impact and little visibility of the thesis and students prefer to publish their research as a book. It is sought that universities offer an optimal and quality educational service.
BANCO PREGUNTAS ENAM PDF
DRELM publica segundo listado de postulantes aptos por Nivel Magisterial de la CPM
Login or register free and only takes a few minutes to participate in this question. You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs or are passionate about them. Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy. The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.
ACLS BRADYCARDIA ALGORITHM PDF
LIBRO PREPARACION Y EVALUACION DE PROYECTOS NASSIR SAPAG PDF
Rozprawa o metodzie by Rene Descartes, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Title, Rozprawa o Metodzie. Publisher, Ventigo Media sp. Rozprawa o metodzie. Front Cover.