Tirumular KR. The primary source of biographical details on Tirumular is the Tamil work known as Peirya Puranam , authored by Sekkilar. Periya Puranam is a work which gives the life stories of all the sixty-three saints Nayanmars of Saivism. Though Tirumular is a Siddha, he is popularly known as a Saiva saint of the Siddhanta tradition and hence his biography is included in Periya Puranam. We may also find some accounts in A.
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Tirumular KR. The primary source of biographical details on Tirumular is the Tamil work known as Peirya Puranam , authored by Sekkilar. Periya Puranam is a work which gives the life stories of all the sixty-three saints Nayanmars of Saivism.
Though Tirumular is a Siddha, he is popularly known as a Saiva saint of the Siddhanta tradition and hence his biography is included in Periya Puranam. We may also find some accounts in A. On his way to Podigai, the yogin visited Kedarnath, Pasupatinath in Nepal , bathed in the Ganges, worshipped in Kasi, and then visited Vindhya and Parvata mountains.
Having worshipped there, he then proceeded to Sri Kalahasti, Tiruvalangadu, Kanchipuram, Tiruvadigai and then to Chidambaram. After worshipping Lord Nataraja at Chidambaram he reached Tiruvavaduturai and paid obeisance there and began his way towards Podigai. On the way, on the banks of the river Kaveri, he saw a flock of cows grieving over the death of their herdsman whose name was Mulan.
Mulan was a resident of the nearby village Sattanur. The cows were happy over the recovery of their master.
The yogin led the cows and drove them into the village and stood outside the village. The wife of Mulan was anxious about her husband, who still had not returned even after sunset, which was unusual.
She came in search of her beloved husband and found him standing outside the village with a strange look. She rushed towards him and touched him. At her touch Mulan jerked and told her indifferently that there was no relationship existing between them and sat in meditation in the nearby mutt. The wife in astonishment brought the village administrators to the spot.
Seeing Mulan in meditation, his body glowing, the villagers pacified her and asked her to leave the yogin alone to pursue the spiritual path in peace. After spending some time in meditation the yogin came to the riverbank in search of his original body.
It was not where he had hidden it. Thinking that it was a play of Lord Siva to make him live in the newly acquired body, the yogin left for Tiruvavaduturai. Tiru is a saintly prefix in Tamil meaning holy. One should take note that the names and the otherworldly possessions are meant only for the mortal body and not for the immortal self. When the body changes the name also changes, like in the episode of the yogin from Kailash, whose name is now changed to Mulan.
Tirumular sat in Siva-Yoga under an arasa-maram called the king of trees , i. Once in a year he would awakened from his meditative slumber and write one verse. Thus, he wrote three thousand verses which means he lived at least three thousand years in Siva-Yoga. The three thousand verses he wrote are compiled as the Tirumantiram. Then he traveled to Mount Kailash and attained soruba-dsamadhi. There is not much difference between the version of Periya Puranam and the version given in other sources.
Only in Agattiyar Vaittiya Rattinac Curukkam one finds a difference. We find it with a few more additions in Caturagirit Tala Puranam. This version is:. He was married to Sundaravadani and Chandravadani, the daughters of King Aditya, who was ruling another country with Anantanagar as its capital.
The son born to Sundaravadani was named Virasena and the three sons of Chandravadani were called Dharmartha, Surasena and Vajrangada. Years rolled by and at the proper age Virasena was married to Gunavati, the daughter of the king of Maharapura. As Dharmartha happened to be the eldest, the king wanted to crown him as his successor. But, showing the legal and moral issues, Dharmartha refused to be crowned and insisted that the fittest son to be the successor was only Virasena his half-brother.
The king was pleased and crowned Virasena as the king of the country. One day, when the king Virasena was returning to the palace after completing his royal procession through the city, he saw a fascinating flower in the palace garden. Charmed by the flower, he plucked and smelt it, then collapsed unconscious to the ground.
The royal physician was sent for. Examining the body, he declared the king dead. At news of the kings death an uproar arose throughout the kingdom.
During this time, Tirumular was flying in the sky. Hearing the uproar of crying, he went down to the palace to understand what had happened. To ease the grief of the people, Tirumular decided to occupy the body of Virasena. He went to his hermitage and instructed his disciple Gururaja Rsi to protect the body that he was going to leave safely in a cave.
Then he left his own body and transmigrated into the body of Virasena. Virasena got up to the astonishment of all. He explained to Gunavati and others that the drop of poison deposited on the flower petal by a venomous snake had killed him, but he was brought back to life by the grace of a Siddha.
In due course, Gunavati noticed that his way of moving with her, his mode of speech and other activities were somewhat different. Realising that she was experiencing greater joy with him than before, Gunavati requested her husband to explain the reason.
Tirumular now Virasena , revealed who he was and told her that only for the sake of the people had he migrated into the body of Virasena. He said that he would return to his hermitage within a short period. When Gunavati asked what he would do if his original body had already been burnt or destroyed, he told her that his original body was an immortalised one and could be burnt only by certain process known only to him.
Then, distracted, he revealed to her the secret process of incinerating the immortalized body. Gunavati feared that once Tirumular, as Virasena left the palace, she would lose not only his company, but all her royal fortunes. So she conceived a plan of burning his original body. At the same time, the disciple Gururaja, very much concerned over the long absence of his guru , left the hermitage in search of his master. Tirumular i. Feeling full of apprehension, Tirumular reached the cave to find that his original body had been burnt to ashes.
With dismay, he returned to the palace and led a disinterested life with Gunavati until one day when he decided to finally relinquish the palace comforts and went towards the eastern side of Caturagiri. On a riverbank, he saw the dead body of Jambukesvara, a learned Brahmin of Tiruvanaikka Tiruchi district of Tamil Nadu.
Tirumular made a quick decision and left the body of Virasena and placed it inside the hollow of a beautiful tree, which henceforth came to be known as arasa-maram king of trees, because it sheltered the body of a king within its hollow. He then transmigrated into the body of Jambukesvara, and retired to the forest known as Kalivana, and lost himself in deep samadhi. When he came out of samadhi , he outpoured thousands of verses with the high principles of Siddha-vidya.
Tirumular thereafter came to be known as Jambumuni and Jambukesamuni. Chidambaranar tries to trace the origin of Tirumular. According to his version, Tirumular was born in Tamil Nadu. He was named by his parents as Sundaram.
But there is no place where Tirumular says that his original name was Sundaram, as Chidambaranar says. Thus he gained the friendship of Agastya. After completing his studies there he wanted to learn more and he traveled north to Mount Kailash. He learned the Vedas and the Agamas from Nandidevar and got the suffix Natha. Tirumular endorses that he was taught by Nandidevar verses 67, 68 and the names of his co-disciples. While he was doing penance in Kailash, the Siddhas Patanjali and Vyakrama wanted to see the blissful dance of Lord Nataraja at Chidambaram and Sundaranatha Tirumular accompanied them.
Patanjali and Vyakrama stayed in Chidambaram, but Sundaranatha returned to Kailash to continue his penance. After some time he decided to meet his old friend Agastya, so he traveled to the south again. Tirumular says singing the glory of the Lord in sweet Tamil verse 81 and rendering accessible the holy feet of the Lord to the worldly people verse is his life mission. In the second canto of Agattiyar , Siddha Agastya states that Tirumular stayed on the northern side of Mount Meru and he initiated and instructed Lord Krishna in dvapara-yuga.
Markandeya also received initiation and instruction from Tirumular. The remaining story from Chidambaranar is the same as in Periya Puranam. Some of the data given in Periya Puranam is found in Tirumantiram. Four yugas are mentioned in the Hindu mythology. Of these Krta is 1,, years; Treta is 1,, years; Dvapara is , years; Kali is , years. Their total is one Maha-yuga — 4,, years. One kalpa forms one day of Brahma, the God of creation.
There are seven kalpas and we are in the sixth one. There are so many works that claim the authorship of Tirumular. It is worth noting here that Sekkilar, who drafted the popularly accepted biography of Tirumular in his Periya Puranam , did not mention any other work other than Tirumantiram. Tirumular too did not claim authorship of any work other than Tirumantiram. Tirumandiram Tirumandiram or Thirumandiram written by the Yoga Siddhar Tirumular or Thirumoolar in Tamil, in more than three thousand verses, probably between the 4th and 6th centuries A.
The 12th century philosophical school of Saiva Siddhantha traces its origins to it. Arumugam The primary source of biographical details on Tirumular is the Tamil work known as Peirya Puranam , authored by Sekkilar.
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The Tirumantiram or Thirumantiram is a Tamil poetic work written in 12th century by Thirumular and is the tenth of the twelve volumes of the Tirumurai , the key texts of Shaiva Siddhanta and the first known Tamil work to use the term. It consists of over three thousand verses dealing with various aspects of spirituality, ethics and praise of Shiva. But it is more spiritual than religious and one can see the difference between Vedanta and Siddhanta from Tirumular's interpretation of the Mahavakyas. According to another historian, Madhavan, the work stresses on the fundamentals of Siddha medicine and its healing powers. The poems have a unique metrical structure, each line consisting of 11 or 12 syllables depending on the initial syllable. Tirumular discusses the four steps of spiritual progress; Charya , Kriya , Yoga and Gnana , the Shaiva Siddhanta concept of Pati , Pasu and Pasa where Pati stands for Lord shiva, Pasu stands for the human kind and Pasa stands for Maya the desire , sadhana , Vedanta , the Upanishadic Tat tvam asi and other Vedantic concepts, the transcendental reality as emptiness Sunya devoid of any attribute and Tantrasastra Shakti worship , chakras , magic spells and their accessories.
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