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This article in S panish O riginal Version. Article record. About the authors. Print this article. Amparo Porta porta edu. Sobre los autores. Television is one of the most important elements in the construction of the musical and audible reality of children and teenagers.
It offers a selected and edited version of a musical environment, with an indisputable level of communicative and patrimonial influence. Here we present the creation and validation process of such an instrument. The more important elements are the consensus process, since we attempt to validate the instrument within the Latin-American context and decision-making because of the inherent characteristics of the music as variable analysed, since sound develops over time, and this makes an accurate classification of it very difficult.
Soundtrack, quantitative analysis, validation, observation, classification, television, listening. Volumen 15, n. The four components of the sonic experience, i. They have received far less attention from Communication and have been largely ignored by general and musical education. Nonetheless, other concepts that are so familiar to us when we speak of sound in relation to the mass media such as recorded sound, loops, simultaneity and sound manipulation, editing, changes of speed, phonetic language expressed by objects, as well as others like stretching, compressing, overturning or manipulating have been part of avant-garde art in the 20th century.
Comments to this article. Volume 15, n. These latter authors have researched the television viewing habits of children and teenagers, and conclude that they can often be the cause for some concern.
Likewise, Pintado considers that, since it first became part of the market, the main aim of television has been to produce audiences rather than contents Pintado, It also allows us to put together an overall view in order to integrate the problem of television listening within a cultural perspective of child development.
Among the many other points they make and as a long-term goal, these same authors advocate the creation of children's television programmes that take cultural elements as their reference. Very little research has been conducted on the cognitive, social and communicative aspects of music on television, despite the role it plays in modelling and constructing the reality of children and teenagers. Sound is part of the auditory system and one of the first senses to become active in humans.
Listening to Spanish television soundtracks has a number of undeniable repercussions and even more so if we bear in mind that the country ranks second in terms of television viewing in Europe.
The report makes three recommendations: 1 Researching and looking for alternatives; 2 Including material on media literacy; and 3 Restructuring the educational curriculum. Their consequences, according to the report, include effects on attention, academic performance, reading and writing, and narrativity, among others. Television as a construct of musical and sound reality.
Music plays a part in the construction of that inner world and hybridisation takes place effectively by means of sound because the world is often replaced by music and the qualities of sound take the place of things Porta, High level literacy skills gain from an education that revolves around verbal, audiovisual and other forms of literacy.
Thus, it is necessary to conduct research that is capable of objectively identifying the elements of listening present in the television diet as one of the components of sense, and this is something that is still largely lacking in syllabus design.
Only literacy education that takes into account different languages and forms of expression including music will be able to cope with the changes in the forms of representation that have arisen in contemporary languages. Our subject matter is interested in meaning. Juan Reyes calls these cracks Islands of Entropy Reyes, From a neighbouring perspective, i. The answer, which goes well beyond the scope of this paper, is of a semiotic nature because we are interested in the meaning and the sense of the music that children listen to in the most everyday of environments in Hispanic culture, that is to say, television.
Thus, we need to undertake a research process that begins with the creation of a hitherto inexistent listening template and then goes a step further and selects samples to which it can be applied and interpreted. The results of this process will provide educational alternatives in a forever-changing sonic environment.
In this section we are reviewing the literature on the multifaceted phenomenon of listening in the everyday environment. This sound habitat belongs to contemporary popular music and its boundaries are felt to be blurred and overlapping in different areas of communication.
Nevertheless, at a descriptive level we could say that, today, this music of everyday life is transmitted in an oral, unwritten way, often makes use of a foreign language, and is distributed on a massive scale to heterogeneous cultures. The whole communicative environment of the turn of the millennium is steeped with it and it incorporates elements of sound engineering and communication.
Its importance is based on the selection and arrangement of the elements of musical language or, in other words, on the combination between what is said, what is not said, how, when and to whom it is said Porta, b. The systematisation required to provide our work with a solid grounding in fact displays a gaping void when it comes to the acoustic context of children. The studies that can be found in the literature mostly laboratory experiments cover artificial realities for groups that have been defined in terms of their learning traits or in high-risk populations in schools Burnard, ; Ward-Steinman, ; health and eating habits, which link music, advertising and consumption Ostbyeit, ; Koivusilta, ; the relationship between music and reading skills Register, ; and the relationship with violence Peterson and Newman, , among others.
The need for objective tools can only be met by creating scales for measuring a new sonic environment. This problem of measurement instruments in music is not new, however, and the issue becomes even more acute when we expand the concept to the everyday sonic environment. Some architects have spoken out on the peculiarity of the sonic environment and the need to take it into account. According to these professionals, each fragment of the urban fabric has its own characteristic sound traits that tell us about its spatial qualities, its transient comings and goings, and the uses it is put to by those that inhabit it.
This is why they say that these traits are what make up its ordinary, everyday identity. We therefore need to listen to the music of our everyday environment again and to do so we have to use language and instruments of analysis developed by the discipline of Music itself Atienza, Over the last 40 years, different interdisciplinary efforts have worked on the border between different areas of knowledge and disciplines.
In the s and s, two different approaches to sound analysis appeared. He also calls for new solutions to new requirements when he says that the various fields of sound studies are in need of what amounts to a revolution. Such a revolution would consist in unifying disciplines that deal with the science of sound and those that are concerned with the art of sound. The result would be the development of the interdisciplines of acoustic ecology and acoustic design Schafer, The concept of soundscape also presents a number of limitations when it comes to analysing urban contexts, in this case deriving from an excessively long working scale Augoyard and Torgue, From our position as educators, and in line with Atienza, we wish to stress that a sound effect is not an object in itself and sound material is not to be dealt with as if it were an object, but as a medium.
The questions about sound itself, which were addressed by Pierre Schaeffer and Robert Murray Schafer, therefore continue. It is not our aim here to study sound as an end in itself, unattached to any kind of context: to the contrary, the study is conducted in relation to a precise point in time and space.
This line of research arises from the need to find an interdisciplinary tool that fits the scale of an urban configuration and allows dimensions other than purely aesthetic ones to be incorporated Atienza, This concept can be used as a way to obtain a qualitative description of the everyday sound experience.
The effect describes the links that exist between the physical and human dimensions of the environment, and between the sound space, our perception and the way we represent it. The Cresson laboratory in Grenoble establishes a survey protocol in which it indicates a shift in paradigm that rests upon three types of key notions: those related to the description, those related to the trajectory and those related to the experience.
The observation work carried out by this laboratory has used a number of parameters that have been expanded to include contextual data about sound, as well as others of a more private, experiential, nature.
But, in order to understand how this located sound material can be perceived, first we have to know what sound qualities such configurations possess. Listening to television is, in terms of exposure time, the largest of contemporary sound habitats. Television music consists of a musical organisation adapted to the medium and a selection of styles based on advertising strategies and music imported from the dominant North American industrial or highly competitive Japanese manga cultures.
And, in this context, the proximity contents De Moragas, and listening as a communicative, aesthetic and patrimonial educational value, as set out in different Spanish laws BOE, , a and b , appear to be called into question.
This is the general framework of our object of study, but empirical research requires the use of instruments. Its most notable content is what is listened to in the contemporary sound habitat — high impact, persistent material of an industrial origin — together with the use of musical, sound and communicative formulas adapted to the medium of television.
Thus, from the standpoint of musical education we can justify the need to create a still inexistent instrument for measuring listening that enables us to search for educational alternatives in an objective way.
To achieve this, it is necessary to analyse the contents of television soundtracks with the greatest strength, impact and continuity, as well as what they are missing, which is as vital as what is present. The results of this research can be used as a guide for viewers, production companies, TV networks and educators.
Finally, we believe that the study will be of use in future reconstructions of curricular design. Music is produced in time, and our instrument therefore needs to be set in time in a twofold sense, i. The first issue to be addressed is to delimit the sequence so that it can be observed and analysed objectively, without any kind of ambiguity. The architecture-based survey protocol developed by the Cresson laboratory offers us some guidance by defining three dimensions to be considered when observing the listening process: description, trajectory and experience.
In our case we are going to establish the first two so as to be able to gain access to some of the characteristics that make up the complex cognitive, social, cultural and affective framework of the auditory experience. The theoretical framework of reference for interpreting these soundtracks in a semiotic way is based on the model by Eco and Cantarell In his introduction to The Absent Structure , Umberto Eco states that semiotic research only makes sense if the structure of the field is assumed to be an imprecise entity which the method seeks to clarify thereby continually giving rise to contradictions within the field.
Hence, he proposes the following as a methodology :. Compare definitions. Establish the semiotic field in terms of vastness and disorder. Create a research model that is submitted to contradiction. By this he says, if the operation were successful, something that seems almost a utopia would be achieved, i.
One of the first problems that arises when it comes to judging these theories or putting forward new ones is how to define exactly which characteristics of music determine the way we perceive and, later, remember it. Yet, few studies have systematically reviewed each of the factors that make up music and the influence they have on the way musical information is perceived and remembered.
In our case, in order to find out what children listen to on television, we took the model created by these authors as our starting point. In their review of the empirical data and the theoretical explanations, they define the importance of the different characteristics of music in how we perceive and remember pieces of music. They consider musical stimuli to be composed of a large number of dimensions that combine with one another to create the complex auditory pattern that we know as music.
They set out from the assumption that music and language share certain similarities in their structures and that it is therefore possible to group the different musical variables according to whether they refer to the combination of sounds phonology , the rules of segmentation and organisation syntax or the meaning of the music semantics. In this approach, the environment, the intervals and the tonality are variables that determine the combination of the sounds that make up music musical phonology , and the rhythmic pattern, the accents and the rules of formation are essential to be able to carry out the processes of segmenting a piece of music musical syntax.
Finally, tonal hierarchies structure and organise the music as well as generating musical expectations. These latter are considered to be fundamental elements in listening and interpreting music and, together with other expressive factors such as the tempo or the timbre, seem to generate effective responses to music the semantics of music. The instrument that we present here was validated in four phases:. The pilot template for observing the sound characteristics was developed by taking into account their most representative measurable characteristics.
This led to the development of the following list of analysis variables:. Without music. With music.
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Curso de formas musicales
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